Alaska
Governor
Sarah Palin
12/4/2006 - ?

Congresswoman
Geraldine
Ferraro
1/3/79 1/3/85

Commissioner
Katharine
Bement Davis
1914 & 1915

Workhouse
Superintendent
Mary M. Lilly
1919 - 1928
Foursome of Ticket Firsts:
Sarah Palin, Geraldine Ferraro . . . .
Katharine Bement Davis? Mary M. Lilly?
-- Source Notes

Within the main text of the Introduction and the main text of each of the five chapters which follow the Introduction are references to specific sources quoted. Additionally, most of the image captions mention sources that can be accessed by clicking the particular images.

The image of Mrs. Mary M. Lilly used in this presentation is based on one appearing on a NYS Assembly history web page for children. The image of Katharine Bement Davis (KBD) used in this presentation is based on one appearing on her 1914 campaign literature.

The New York Times Archives, Google and Google Books were the main research tools used.

Also useful were

  • Project Gutenberg's What eight million women want by Rheta Childe Dorr.

  • The History of Woman Suffrage by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Ida Husted Harper (published in 1922)

  • The Road to Seneca Falls by Judith Wellman

  • Revisiting Anna Moskowitz Kross' Critique of NYC's Women's Court by Mae C. Quinn, University of TennesseeCollege of Law professor, published in the Fordham Urban Law Journal Vol. 33, 2006.

  • Imogene L. Moyer's Criminological Theories: Traditional and Non-traditional Voices and Themes.

  • History of Santa Clara County pages 872-873, family history of Alice Snitjer (Burke).

  • Birth of the Women's Rights Movement in Seneca County available in county historian Walter Gable's section of that county's official web site:

  • Revivalism, Social Conscience and Community in the Burned-Over District: The Trial of Rhoda Bement by Glenn C. Alschuler and Jan M. Saltzgaber published in 1983 by Cornell University Press.

  • The Rise of Political Woman in the Election of 1912 by Jo Freeman

  • At the risk of appearing immodest, my own bio of KBD, Correction's Katharine Bement Davis: New York City's Suffragist Commissioner that can be found eslewhere on this website.
New York Times stories read and used:

The following are the dates of some of the more than 100 New York Times stories read and used in researching this presentation.

These entries should not be regarded as constituting a timeline, although the list of entries has some of that character about it. But the list also reflects background research on people and issues that figure into the overall story.

1895 - June 11, Mary M. Lilly among 70 graduates -- 10 women & 60 men -- receiving their LL. B. degrees from the Law School of the City of New York. Unusually large number of women graduates. All but 2 in cap and gown unlike the men who dressed in conventional suits.

1906 -- March 11, Feature article on Truant School run by Miss Olive M. Jones.

1910 -- Jan. 1, Lillian D. Wald & Frances A. Kellor report on their NYS Immigration Commission probe of canal work camp conditions.

1912 -- Feb. 10, Mrs. Lilly mentioned in NYC Federation of Women's Club story.

1913 -- June 7, Mrs. Mary M. Lilly, chairperson of the the Probation Committee of the City Federation of Women's Clubs, active in establishing a detention home for female first offenders.

1914 -- Jan. 2 & 3, KBD mentioned in reports on Michel's first days as mayor. Tammany Leader Frank Goodwin resigns as Correction Deputy Commissioner, Burdette G. Lewis named in his place.

-- Jan. 17, Miss Mary Garrett Hay, major figure in NY suffrage struggle, also strong advocate of correction reform, member of NYS Prison Reform Association, addresses Women's Forum that women's prisons should be under women's control.

-- Feb. 1, College Women's Club honor KBD & S. Dr. Josephine Baker. Feb. 22, Association of City Hall Reporters annual show predicts KBD appointment signals ending of male monolopy in politics.

-- April 3, KBD plans Correction Hospital construction on Blackwell's Island using Penitentiary architect inmate's design. April 8, Analysis of voters approval of holding a spring 1915 state constitution convention. April 18, Miss Davis leads grand march at Men's League for Women Suffrage event in armory; April 26, Mrs. O. H. P. Belmont praises KBD, calls for appointment of women judges to children's court.

-- May 2, Mayor Mitchel, KBD, Alice Paul among speakers set for Women's Political Union meeting in Carnegie Hall. May 3, Mitchel remarks jolt suffragists, they give KBD standing tribute.

-- July 14, TR to meet with KBD and other leading women of Progressive Party regarding delegate candidates for state constitutional convention. July 16, meeting held, detailed. List of participants, besides KBD, includes Lillian Wald and Mary Antin as Mrs. A. W. Grabau.

-- July 21 22, 23, Becky Edelson hunger strike & KBD. July 28, Letter to the editor by Annie S. Peck re KBD & Becky; separate story, Becky & KBD. July 29, Becky's antics in Tarrytown court. July 30, Becky's hunger strike & KBD. July 31, KBD imposes news blackout on hunger strike (as per Peck idea?).

-- Aug. 21, Becky & Burdette G. Lewis. Aug. 28, Progressives meeting in Utica name KBD among its constitutional convention delegate-at-large candidates.

-- Oct. 15, The Citizen Union and the NYC Committee for the Constitutional Convention lists delegate candidates of three major parties: Democrat, Republican & Progressive (including KBD). Oct. 25, KBD explains how suffragists arranged delegate candidacies on party tickets. Oct. 30, TR, KBD among speakers at Progressive rally in Cooper Union; also story on Becky acquittal. Oct. 31, Delegate Ticket of Citizen Union.

-- Nov. 1, "Women Hold Rally to Boom Dr. Davis." Nov. 3, Times lists statewide constitutional convention at-large delegate candidates of each of the three major parties: Democrat, Republican & Progressive (including KBD). Nov. 7, KBD, Miss Christabel Pankhurst at suffragist rally rasing $105,619 for 1915 vote drive. Nov. 17, KBD elected VP of Nationl American Woman Suffrage Association. Nov. 29, Work begun for special Rikers anti-riot jail for revolutionaries, anarchists, radicals.

-- Dec. 6, Breakdown of state constitutional convention delegate races; KBD runs ahead of 10 male candidates on Progressives ticket for delegates-at-large.

1915 -- Feb. 11, On behalf of NYC & Mitchel administration, KBD welcomes national Retail Dry Goods Association convention.

-- March 3, "Anti-Votes Claque Attacks Miss Davis" at Cooper Union. March 8, KBD to attend 35th A.D. Woman Suffrage Party reception for mayor's wife. March 10, KBD, Lillian Russell speak for suffrage at Made in USA Exposition.

-- May 5, Suffragists lobby constitutional convention delegates.

-- July 6, Mrs. Burke & her yellow Sazon in suffragist parade. July 7, Suffragist Auto Tour, Mrs. Burke & Miss Jones. July 29, KBD and Workhouse warden Mary B. Harris visit Sing Sing. July 30,Report on suffragists' Telephone Day mentions Commissioner Davis & Deputy Commissioner Lewis.

-- Aug. 1, KBD, 6 others sign invitation for formation of a Women's City Club;

-- Sept. 19, Herbert Parsons, chairman of key Constitutional convention committee, explains at length the proposed revisions, includung one to render effective an affirmative referendum vote on Nov. ballot to grant equal suffrage.

-- Oct. 9, KBD hosts suffrage tea party in Municipal Building to recruit marchers for big parade. Oct. 30, KBD, Mrs. W. C. Demorest, Lillian Wald among scores of speakers around the city in major push for passage of state suffrage amendment. Oct. 31, KBD, Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt among top suffrage leaders set to travel on Election Day to polling places throughout city, handing out literatire to local Woman Suffrage Party workers and encouraging them. Another story reports KBD addressing outdoor rally at Madison Square.

-- Nov. 1, Under headline, "Tammany Knifes The Constitution," story reports the Hall's mailing that called for a "no" vote on the constitutional convention's proposed revisions, a "yes" vote on a canal question but took no position on the suffrage issue. Nov. 4, Breakdown on voter rejection of woman suffrage in N.Y., Mass. and Pa.

-- Dec. 4, Analysis of voter rejection of constitution convention proposed revisions. Dec. 12, KBD elected a VP of National American Woman Suffrage Association.

1916 -- Jan. 23, KBD and others open Women's City Club rooms in Vanderbilt Hotel.

-- Feb. 2, KBD and TR speakers at National Americanization Committee luncheon;

-- May 24, Mrs. Catt & KBD address national convention of Federation of Women's Clubs.

-- June 11, KBD takes issue with Alice Carpenter on Progressive national women's league proposal. July 20, Two stories on Hughes Alliance, both mention KBD, one also mentions Mary Antin.

-- Sept. 7, NJ chapters host reception at start of NAWSA convention in Atlantic City; KBD among guests. Sept. 8, At NAWSA convention KBD back Mrs. Catt's resolution on state campaigns having national amendment goal. Sept. 9, President Wilson, KBD address National American Woman Suffrage Association convention.

-- Oct. 4, 10, 20, 22, Nov. 4, Hughesette train stories;

-- Nov. 4, TR welcomes back KBD and other Hughsettes from cross-country train tour.

1917 -- Aug. 25 - Analysis of equal suffrage campaign in NY, Maine and across the country.

-- Oct. 28, Citizen Union prefers incumbent Democratic Alderman Frank Mullen to challenger James C. Thomas, lawyer, in Harlem. (Thomas was on the Progressive slate with KBD as a delegate-at-large candidate.)

-- Nov. 22, NY State Woman Suffrage Party convention rejects reprisal plank. Nov. 23, James C. Thomas, Republican candidate for Alderman, seeks court action in his election contest with Democrat Frank Mullen who claims victory by 2,832 to 2,431.

-- Dec 2, KBD at fete for Miss Hay, chair of NYC Woman Suffrage Party. Dec. 30, Year-end review notes Nov. 6th passage of NY state suffrage amendment.

1918 -- Jan. 2, New NYC Mayor Hylan names as Correction Commissioner former State Senator James A. Hamilton, choice of Bronx Tammany leader Arthur Murphy.

-- June 18, Ida Sammis of Huntington, suffrage leader in Suffolk, enters primary race to be GOP candidate for 2nd A. D. seat held by Republican Henry A. Murphy. Women registered voters outnumber male registered voters in Huntington.

-- Aug. 8, Amsterdam Democratic Club nominates Mrs. Mary M. Lilly, a lawyer, for 7th A.D. seat.

-- Nov. 7, Revised returns show Mary M. Lilly, Democrat, won the 7th A. D., beating incumbent Republican Ellenbogen.

1919 -- May 18, Knickerbocker Civic League honors Assemblywoman Lilly, cites her legislative record.

-- June 17, NYS Legislature ratifies federal equal suffrage amendment. Assembly's two women members, Democrat Mary M. Lilly of NYC and Republican Ida Sammis of Suffolk speak on behalf of ratification; ratified without any no votes.

-- Aug. 18, Citizen Union responds to Mrs. Lilly's defense of her Assembly voting record.

-- Nov. 3 (Election Day Eve), "Citizen Union Hits Woman Candidate, Assemblyman Mary M. Lilly Alleged to be Illegally Holding a City Job;" Nov. 4 (Election Day), "Mrs. Lilly defends 2 salaries . . . Points to distinction. Her position on Blackwell's Island not a 'public office.'" Nov. 6, Mrs. Lilly defeated in re-election bid to Republican Noel B. Fox.

1921 -- Dec. 11, Workhouse Superintendent Lilly quoted in State Prison Commission report critical of situation facing women detainees after closing Jefferson Market Prison to housing them overnight.

1922 -- Jan. 3, Re-elected Mayor, Hylan keeps Hamilton as Correction Commissioner.

-- Sept. 22, State Democratic Convention nominates Al Smith for Governor. Bronx Sheriff Edward J. Flynn places Correction Commissioner James A. Hamilton's name in nomination for NY State Secretary of State.

-- Oct. 22, Mrs. Anna M. Kross, Mrs. Mary M. Lilly, amd former DOC Commissioner Hamilton among speakers at a campaign luncheon given by the Women's Democratic Club.

-- Dec. 30, Former NYPD Deputy Commissioner Frederick A. Wallis named Correction Commissioner to succeed James A. Hamilton elected NY State Secretary of State in Nov. election.

1923 -- May 9, Assistant U.S. Attorney James C. Thomas comments in draft dodger case.

-- July 16, Mrs. Lilly among NYC women scheduled to participate in a Woman's Party conference in Seneca Falls and a memorial visit to the Rochchester cemetery grave of Susan B. Anthony.

1924 -- March 6, Assistant U.S. Attorney James C. Thomas comments on ruling in immigration case. March 30, NY Women's Committee for Law Enforcement event mentions KBD and Miss Helen Davis (her sister Helen?).

-- April 20, Mrs. Anna Moskowitz Kross on the committee for Woman's Democratic Club dinner dance at which the members of Gov. Smith's family to be guests of honor.

-- May 25, Mrs. FDR, Mrs. Anna M. Kross and Mary M. Lilly among those named as members of the NY reception committee for the Democratic National Convention.

-- Sept. 10, Various Democratic clubs in NYC hold meetings to boost party's Presidential candidate John W. Davis. Speakers at the Monongahela Democratic Club include Correction Commissioner Frederick Wallis and Mrs. Anna Moskowitz Kross. At the Peter J. Dooling Democratic Club, Miss Olive Jones was among the speakers.

1925 -- May 24, Burdetee G. Lewis, NJ prisons commissioner, honored for his prison industries work. KBD, DOC Commissioner Wallis, Workhouse Superintendent Lilly, Sing Sing Warden Lawes attend.

1926 -- March 21, Gov. Smith, Belle Moskowitz, and Mrs. Anna M. Kross a Women's Civic Organization luncheon event honoring Mayor Walker's wife.

-- Oct 3, Mrs. Lilly among the "patronesses" of a Women's Civic Organization event honoring Gov. Smith's wife.

-- Dec. 18, Former 1915 constitutional convention delegates honor Elihu Root.

1927 -- Nov. 6, Feature article reviewing decade since NYS adopted state constitution amendment for equal suffrage.

1930 -- Jan. 26, Story on a liquor case notes defense lawyer James C. Thomas had been Assistant U.S. Attorney under Emeroy R. Bruckner.

-- Feb. 25, Former Workhouse Superintendent Lilly, now serving as private attorney, escorts high profile client to her office/apartment at Hotel St. Andrew for a conference upon release from Welfare Island, formerly known as Blackwell's Island.

-- July 12, Former Assistant U.S. Attorney James C. Thomas issues criticism of treatment of Negro Gold Star Mothers.

-- Oct. 12, Obit for Mary M. Lilly, "First Woman Elected from [NY] City to State Assembly."

1931 -- Nov. 29, James C. Taylor, "reputed one of the wealthiest Negroes in Harmlen, offers his legal services to Father Devine.

1932 -- June 5, James C. Taylor serves as defense attorney for Father Devine aka George Baker.

1934 -- Sept. 15, James C. Taylor lost in 21st A.D. Democratic primary.

-- Oct. 20, Women explorers honor Annie S. Peck, 84.

1935 -- Sept. 14, Citizen Union prefers Assemblyman William T. Andrews to James C. Thomas and one other in 21st A.D. Democratic primary. . T, Andrews

-- Dec. 11, Obit for KBD.

1936 -- June 16, Miss Annie S, Peck left bulk of $42,000 estate to the Massachusetts Hospital for Women at Rosbury.

1937 -- Jan. 6, Isaac H. Livingston, mentioned Mrs. Alice S. Burke in will at probate (unclear if she is motoring suffragist).

1950 -- May 8, Obit for former Correction Commissioner James A. Hamilton.

1951 -- May 15, Obit for Henry Brereton, sponsor of state constitution amendment for equal suffrage.

-- Aug. 12, Obit for Rebecka Kohut.

1955 -- Oct. 13, Obit for Joseph J. Lilly, son of Assemblywoman Mary L. Lilly (who was not mentioned in the obituary). Details of his distinquished military and legal careers include service in the Mexican War and WWI, and service as Assistant U.S. Attorney for the Souther District of NY and as Assistant NYC Corporation Counsel.

1956 -- March 20, Tammany designates James C. Thomas to run for 11 A.D. seat.

1957 -- Feb. 23, Obit for Dr. Mary Bell Harris, former Workhouse warden.

Thomas C. McCarthy,
Webmaster
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Introduction
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CHAPTER I

Commissioner Davis' Celebrity Preceded Ballot Placement . . . . Commissioner Davis' Grandma an Abolitionist & Feminist . . . . Rhoda Bement Upset Over Abolition Meeting Non-announcement . . . . Elders' Charges Against KBD's Grandma Bement . . . . Abolition, Prohibition, Feminism Connection . . . KBD's Mom, Grandma at 1st Women's Rights Convention.

CHAPTER II

KBD Agrees to Campaign for Suffrage If OK With Mayor . . . . City Hall Reporters Foresee Change Coming With KBD. . . . . . KBD Begins Suffrage Campaign: Pageant, Ball, Rally, Speeches . . . . KBD on TR Party State Ticket . . . . Mayor Mitchel Not Only OKs, But Endorses KBD Candidacy . . . .Support for KBD Candidacy Crosses Party Lines . . . . A Sister Reformatory Superintendent a District Delegate Candidate . . . .

CHAPTER III

Women Delegate Candidates Lost But Cause Gained Ground . . . . Woman Suffrage Telephone Day at DOC . . . . Planning Ahead to Use the Vote to Promote Good Government . . . . KBD Hosts Suffragist Tea in Municipal Building . . . . KBD & 'Her Civil Service Girls' in Suffrage Parade . . . . In Face of Defeat, Fighting Spirits Rose High. . . . .

CHAPTER IV

Hughes Backs U.S. Suffrage Amendment, KBD Backs Hughes . . . . KBD a Leader on Hughes Women's Campaign Train . . . . 8 of 9 NY speakers on Hughes train not 'rich society matrons' . . . . Besides KBD: Mrs. Henry Moskowitz, Rebekah Bettelhelm Kohut, Mrs. Mary Antin, Mrs. Rheta Childe Dorr, Frances Alice Kellor, Mrs. Alice Snitjer Burke, Annie Smith Peck . . . . TR Welcomes Back KBD, Other 'Hughesettes' . . . .

CHAPTER V

'Women Owe No One Party for the Vote' . . . . NY State Voting Rights Win Sped 19th Amendment . . . . DOCer/Assemblywoman Helps Ratify U.S. Suffrage Amendment . . . . Mrs. Lilly: Wife, Mother, Widow, School Teacher & Administrator, Lawyer, Club Woman, Editor, Legislator, Penologist . . . . Mrs. Lilly's Interaction With Anna Moskowitz Kross . . . . Her 1 Year as Assemblywoman Seen by Supporters as Effective . . . . Appointed to DOC on Memorable Day in NY Suffrage History . . . . Lilly Re-election Bid Hit on Election Eve . . . . Mrs. Lilly's Interaction With Katharine Bement Davis . . . . What Would Davis & Lilly Have Thought of the Collective Fact of Ferraro, Clinton, & Palin Candidacies?
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Source Notes
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Copyright 2008 by Thomas C. McCarthy and the New York Correction History Society
on main texts and captions, excluding material quoted and cited from other sources.
All rights on original text and caption wording reserved.